Civil MDC

Report on Torsion in Structural Concrete (ACI 445.1R-12) 2

Report on Torsion in Structural Concrete (ACI 445.1R-12)


Accounting for the effects of torsion is essential to the safe design of structural concrete members, requiring a full knowledge of the effects of torsion and a sound under-standing of the analytical models that can easily be used for design. For over three decades, considerable research has been conducted on the behavior of reinforced concrete members under pure torsion and torsion combined with other loadings. Likewise, analytical models have been developed based on the truss model concept. Several of these models were developed to predict the full load history of a member, whereas others are simplified and used only to calculate torsional strength. Many models developed since the 1980s account for softening of diagonally cracked concrete.

This report reviews and summarizes the evolution of torsion design provisions in ACI 318, followed with a summary of the present state of knowledge on torsion for design and analysis of structural concrete beam-type members. Despite a vast amount of research in torsion, provisions of torsion design did not appear in ACI 318 until 1971 (ACI 318-71), although ACI 318-63 included a simple clause regarding detailing for torsion. Code provisions in 1971 were based on Portland Cement Association (PCA) tests (Hsu 1968b).

These provisions were applicable only to rectangular nonprestressed concrete members. In 1995, ACI 318-95 adopted an approach based on a thin-tube, space truss model previously used in the Canadian Standards Association (CSA-A23.3-77) code and the Comité Euro-International du Béton (CEB)-FIP code (1978). This model permitted treatment of sections with arbitrary shape and prestressed concrete (Ghoneim and MacGregor 1993; MacGregor and Ghoneim 1995). The ACI 318-02 code extended the appli-cation of the (ACI 318) 1995 torsion provisions to include prestressed hollow sections. ACI 318 allows the use of alter-native design methods for torsional members with a cross section aspect ratio of 3 or greater, like the procedures of pre-1995 editions of ACI 318 or the Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI) method (Zia and Hsu 1978).

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