Civil MDC

Soil and Groundwater Remediation by Chunlong Zhang, 2020

Table of contents :
Cover
Title Page
Copyright Page
Contents
About the Author
Preface
Acknowledgments
Whom This Book Is Written For
To the Instructor
List of Symbols
About the Companion Website
Chapter 1 Sources and Types of Soil and Groundwater Contamination
1.1 Uses of Surface Water vs. Groundwater
1.2 Groundwater Quantity vs. Groundwater Quality
1.3 Major Factors Affecting Groundwater Quality
1.4 Soil and Groundwater Contaminant Sources in the United States
1.4.1 Superfund Sites and Brownfields
1.4.2 RCRA Facilities and Underground Storage Tanks
1.4.3 DoD/DoE Sites
1.5 Contaminated Soil and Groundwater: A Global Perspective
1.6 Soil and Groundwater Remediation
1.6.1 Unique Challenges Relative to Air and Surface Water Pollution
1.6.2 Scope of Environmental Remediation
Bibliography
Questions and Problems
Chapter 2 Subsurface Contaminant Fate and Transport
2.1 Frequent Soil and Groundwater Contaminants
2.1.1 Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
2.1.2 Halogenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
2.1.3 Halogenated Aromatic Hydrocarbons
2.1.4 Nitrogen-containing Organic Compounds
2.1.5 Oxygenated Organic Compounds
2.1.6 Sulfur- and Phosphorus-containing Organic Compounds
2.1.7 Inorganic Nonmetals, Metals, and Radionuclides
2.2 Abiotic and Biotic Chemical Fate Processes
2.2.1 Hydrolysis
2.2.2 Oxidation and Reduction
2.2.3 Biodegradation
2.3 Interphase Chemical Transport
2.3.1 Volatilization
2.3.2 Solubilization, Precipitation, and Dissolution
2.3.2.1 Solubility and Solubility Product for Inorganic Compounds
2.3.2.2 Solubility and Kow for Organic Compounds
2.3.3 Sorption and Desorption
2.4 Intraphase Chemical Movement
2.4.1 Advection
2.4.2 Dispersion and Diffusion
Bibliography
Questions and Problems
Chapter 3 Soil and Groundwater Hydrology
3.1 Soil Composition and Properties
3.1.1 Constituents of Soils
3.1.2 Soil Physical and Chemical Properties
3.2 Basic Concepts of Aquifer and Wells
3.2.1 Vertical Distribution of Aquifer
3.2.2 Groundwater Well and Well Nomenclature
3.2.3 Hydrogeological Parameters
3.2.3.1 Specific Yield and Specific Retention
3.2.3.2 Hydraulic Conductivity and Permeability
3.2.3.3 Transmissivity and Storativity
3.3 Groundwater Movement
3.3.1 Flow in Saturated Zone
3.3.2 Flow in Unsaturated Zone
3.3.3 Flow to Wells in a Steady‐State Confined Aquifer
3.3.4 Flow to Wells in a Steady‐State Unconfined Aquifer
3.3.5 Flow of Nonaqueous Phase Liquid
Bibliography
Questions and Problems
Chapter 4 Legal, Economical, and Risk Assessment Considerations
4.1 Soil and Groundwater Protection Laws
4.1.1 Relevant Soil and Groundwater Laws in the United States
4.1.1.1 Safe Drinking Water Act
4.1.1.2 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
4.1.1.3 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act
4.1.1.4 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendment
4.1.1.5 Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act
4.1.1.6 Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act
4.1.2 Framework of Environmental Laws in Other Countries
4.2 Cost Constraints in Remediation
4.2.1 Remediation Cost Elements
4.2.2 Basis for Remediation Cost Estimates
4.2.3 Cost Comparisons among Remediation Alternatives
4.3 Risk-based Remediation
4.3.1 How Clean Is Clean
4.3.2 Estimate Environmental Risk from Carcinogenic Compounds
4.3.3 Estimate Environmental Risk from Noncarcinogenic Compounds
4.3.4 Determine Risk-Based Cleanup Levels for Soil and Groundwater
4.3.4.1 Determining Maximum Concentration in Drinking Water and Air
4.3.4.2 Determining Allowable Soil Cleanup Level
4.3.4.3 Risk Involving Multimedia
Bibliography
Questions and Problems
Chapter 5 Site Characterization for Soil and Groundwater Remediation
5.1 General Consideration of Site Characterization
5.1.1 Objectives and Scopes of Site Characterization
5.1.2 Basic Steps: Phase I, II, and III Assessment
5.1.2.1 Phase I Environmental Site Assessment
5.1.2.2 Phase II Environmental Site Assessment
5.2 Soil and Geologic Characterization
5.2.1 Stratigraphy, Lithology, and Structural Geology
5.2.2 Direct Drilling Methods
5.2.3 Drive Method Using Cone Penetrometer
5.2.4 Indirect Geophysical Methods
5.3 Hydrogeologic Site Investigation
5.3.1 Well Installation, Development, and Purging
5.3.2 Hydraulic Head and Flow Direction
5.3.2.1 Methods to Measure Hydraulic Head
5.3.2.2 Groundwater Flow Direction
5.3.3 Aquifer Tests to Estimate Hydraulic Conductivity
5.4 Environmental Sampling and Analysis
5.4.1 Common Soil Samplers
5.4.2 Groundwater Sampling
5.4.2.1 Groundwater Sampling Tools
5.4.2.2 Cross-Contamination in Groundwater Sampling
5.4.3 Vadose Zone Soil Gas and Water Sampling
5.4.4 Instruments for Chemical Analysis
Bibliography
Questions and Problems
Chapter 6 Overview of Remediation Options
6.1 Types of Remediation Technologies
6.1.1 Classifications of Remediation Technologies
6.1.2 Common and Frequently Used Remediation Technologies
6.1.3 Technologies from Contaminant Perspectives
6.2 Development and Selection of Remediation Technologies
6.2.1 Remedial Investigation/Remedial Feasibility Study
6.2.2 Remediation Technologies Screening and Selection Criteria
6.2.3 Green and Sustainable Remediation
6.3 A Snapshot of Remediation Technologies
6.3.1 Description of Various Treatments
6.3.2 Treatment Train
Bibliography
Questions and Problems
Chapter 7 Pump-and-Treat Systems
7.1 General Applications of Conventional Pump‐and‐Treat
7.1.1 Contaminant Removal versus Hydraulic Containment
7.1.2 Schemes of Injection/Extraction Well Placement
7.2 Design of Pump‐and‐Treat Systems
7.2.1 Capture Zone Analysis of Pump-and-Treat Optimization
7.2.2 Aboveground Treatment of Contaminated Groundwater
7.2.2.1 General Treatment Technologies Available
7.2.2.2 Design Considerations for Air Stripping
7.2.2.3 Design Considerations for Activated Carbon
7.3 Pump-and-Treat Limitations and Alterations
7.3.1 Residual Saturations of Nonaqueous Phase Liquid
7.3.1.1 Dissolved Contaminant from NAPLs
7.3.1.2 Residual Saturation
7.3.2 Tailing and Rebound Problems
7.3.2.1 Slow NAPL Dissolution
7.3.2.2 Slow Contaminant Desorption/Precipitate Dissolution
7.3.2.3 Slow Matrix Diffusion
7.3.2.4 Groundwater Velocity Variation
7.3.3 Alterations of Conventional Pump‐and‐Treat
7.3.3.1 Chemical Enhancement to Increase Contaminant Mobility and Solubility
7.3.3.2 Horizontal Wells, Inclined Wells, Interceptor Trenches, and Drains
7.3.3.3 Phased Extraction Wells, Adaptive Pumping, and Pulsed Pumping
7.3.3.4 Induced Fractures
7.3.3.5 Pumping in Conjunction with Permeable and Impermeable Barriers
Bibliography
Questions and Problems
Chapter 8 Soil Vapor Extraction and Air Sparging
8.1 General Applications and Limitations of Vapor Extraction
8.1.1 Process Description and System Components
8.1.2 Chemical and Geologic Parameters Affecting Vapor Extraction
8.1.3 Pros and Cons of Vapor Extraction and Air Sparging
8.2 Soil Vapor Behavior and Gas Flow in Subsurface
8.2.1 Airflow Patterns in Subsurface
8.2.2 Vapor Equilibrium and Thermodynamics
8.2.3 Kinetics of Volatilization, Vapor Diffusion, and NAPL Dissolution
8.2.4 Darcy’s Law for Advective Vapor Flow
8.3 Design for Vapor Extraction and Air Sparging Systems
8.3.1 Quantitative Analysis for the Appropriateness of Soil Venting
8.3.2 Well Number, Flow Rate, and Well Location
8.3.3 Other Design Considerations
Bibliography
Questions and Problems
Chapter 9 Bioremediation and Environmental Biotechnology
9.1 Principles of Bioremediation and Biotechnology
9.1.1 Microorganisms and Microbial Growth
9.1.1.1 Types of Microorganisms
9.1.1.2 Cell Growth on Contaminant
9.1.2 Reaction Stoichiometry and Kinetics
9.1.3 Biodegradation Potentials and Pathways
9.1.3.1 Biodegradation of Petroleum Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
9.1.3.2 Biodegradation of Single-Ring Petroleum Aromatic Hydrocarbon (BTEX)
9.1.3.3 Biodegradation of Fuel Additives (MTBE)
9.1.3.4 Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
9.1.3.5 Biodegradation of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons (CAHs)
9.1.3.6 Biodegradation of Chlorinated Aromatic Compounds
9.1.3.7 Biodegradation of Explosive Compounds
9.1.4 Optimal Conditions for Bioremediation
9.1.4.1 Hydrogeologic Parameters
9.1.4.2 Soil/Groundwater Physicochemical Parameters
9.1.4.3 Microbial Presence
9.1.4.4 Contaminant Characteristics
9.2 Process Description of Bioremediation and Biotechnologies
9.2.1 In Situ Bioremediation
9.2.2 Ex Situ Biological Treatment
9.2.2.1 Biopiles and Composting
9.2.2.2 Landfarming
9.2.2.3 Bioslurry Reactors
9.2.3 Sanitary Landfills
9.2.4 Phytoremediation and Constructed Wetland
9.3 Design Considerations and Cost-Effectiveness
9.3.1 General Design Rationales
9.3.1.1 Design for in Situ Groundwater Bioremediation
9.3.1.2 Design for Bioventing
9.3.1.3 Design for Biosparging
9.3.1.4 Design for Biopiles and Composting
9.3.1.5 Design of Landfill
9.3.2 Cost Effectiveness Case Studies
Bibliography
Questions and Problems
Chapter 10 Thermal Remediation Technologies
10.1 Thermal Destruction by Incineration
10.1.1 Principles of Combustion and Incineration
10.1.1.1 Combustion Chemistry and Combustion Efficiency
10.1.1.2 Heating Values of Fuels/Wastes
10.1.1.3 Oxygen (Air) Requirement
10.1.1.4 Three T’s of the Combustion/Incineration
10.1.2 Components of Hazardous Waste Incinerator Systems
10.1.2.1 General Applications, Pros and Cons
10.1.2.2 Incinerator System Components
10.1.2.3 Four Types of Combustion Chambers
10.1.3 Design Considerations for Incineration
10.1.3.1 Incinerator Size and Dimensions
10.1.3.2 Factors Affecting Incinerator Performance
10.1.4 Regulatory and Siting Considerations
10.2 Thermally Enhanced Technologies
10.2.1 Temperature Effects on Physicochemical and Biological Properties
10.2.2 Heat Transfer Mechanisms in Soil and Groundwater
10.2.3 Required Heat-Up Time and Radius of Influence
10.2.4 Use of Hot Air, Steam, Hot Water, and Electro-Heating
10.2.4.1 Hot Air, Steam, Hot Water, and Electro-Heating
10.2.4.2 Flow Chart to Select Thermal Processes
10.3 Vitrification
Bibliography
Questions and Problems
Chapter 11 Soil Washing and Flushing
11.1 Basic Principles of Soil Washing and Flushing
11.1.1 Overview of Soil Washing and Flushing
11.1.2 Surfactant-Enhanced Contaminant Solubilization
11.1.3 Surfactant-Enhanced Contaminant Mobilization
11.1.4 Cosolvent Effects on Solubility and Mobilization
11.2 Process Description, Technology Applicability, and Limitations
11.2.1 Ex Situ Soil Washing
11.2.2 In Situ Soil Flushing and Cosolvent Flooding
11.3 Design and Cost‐Effectiveness Considerations
11.3.1 Chemical Additives in Soil Washing and Flushing
11.3.2 Recycle of Chemical Additives and Disposal of Flushing Wastes
Bibliography
Questions and Problems
Chapter 12 Permeable Reactive Barriers
12.1 Reaction Mechanisms and Hydraulics in Reactive Barriers
12.1.1 Barrier Technologies as a Viable Option for Pump-and-Treat
12.1.2 Dechlorination Mediated through Redox Reactions by Zero-Valent Iron
12.1.3 Other Abiotic and Biotic Processes in Reactive Barriers
12.1.4 Hydraulics and Fouling Problems in Reactive Barriers
12.2 Process Description of Reactive Barriers
12.2.1 Configurations of Reactive Barriers
12.2.2 Available Reactive Media and Selection
12.2.2.1 Types of Reactive Media
12.2.2.2 Reactive Media Selection
12.3 Design and Construction Considerations
12.3.1 Barrier Design Concept
12.3.2 Construction Methods
Bibliography
Questions and Problems
Chapter 13 Modeling of Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport
13.1 Governing Equations for Groundwater Flow
13.1.1 Saturated Groundwater Flow under Steady-State Condition (Laplace Equation)
13.1.2 Saturated Groundwater Flow under Transient Condition
13.1.3 Unsaturated Groundwater Flow under Transient Condition (Richards Equation)
13.2 Governing Equations for Contaminant Transport
13.2.1 General Mass Balance Equations Considering Advection and Dispersion
13.2.2 Governing Equations for Contaminant Transport in Unsaturated Zone
13.2.3 Governing Equations Incorporating Adsorption and Reaction
13.2.4 General Concepts and Equations Describing Multiphase Flow and Transport
13.2.4.1 Processes Relevant to Multiphase and Multiple Components
13.2.4.2 Framework of Governing Equations for Multiphase Flow and Transport
13.3 Analytical Solutions to Flow and Transport Processes
13.3.1 Darcy’s Law: 1-D Flow in Unconfined Aquifer (Dupuit Equation)
13.3.2 Fick’s Second Law: 1-D Diffusion Only Solutions
13.3.3 Advection and Dispersion: 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D Solutions to Slug Injection
13.3.4 Advection and Dispersion: 1-D Solutions to Continuous Injection
13.3.5 Advection and Dispersion: 2-D and 3-D Solutions to Continuous Injection
13.4 Numerical Solutions to Flow and Transport Processes
13.4.1 Partial Differential Equations and Numerical Methods
13.4.2 2-D Laplace Equation Using Finite Difference Method

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