Civil MDC

Construction of Offshore Structures Book by Ben Gerwick

For two decades, Ben Gerwick’s ability to capture the current state of practice and present it in a straightforward, easily digestible manner has made Construction of Marine and Offshore Structures the reference of choice for modern civil and maritime construction engineers. The third edition of this perennial bestseller continues to be the most modern and authoritative guide in the field. Based on the author’s lifetime of experience, the book also incorporates relevant published information from many sources. Updated and expanded to reflect new technologies, methods, and materials, the book includes new information on topics such as liquefaction of loose sediments, scour and erosion, archaeological concerns, high-performance steel, ultra-high-performance concrete, steel H piles, and damage from sabotage and terrorism. It features coverage of LNG terminals and offshore wind and wave energy structures. Clearly, concisely, and accessibly, this book steers you away from the pitfalls and toward the successful implementation of principles that can bring your marine and offshore projects to life.
Table of contents :
Half Title……Page 1
Title……Page 3
Copyright……Page 4
Dedication……Page 5
Preface……Page 7
Acknowledgments……Page 9
Author……Page 11
Contents……Page 13
1.2 Distances and Depths……Page 25
Table of Contents……Page 0
1.3 Hydrostatic Pressure and Buoyancy……Page 26
1.4 Temperature……Page 27
1.5.1 Marine Organisms……Page 28
1.6 Currents……Page 30
1.7 Waves and Swells……Page 35
1.8 Winds and Storms……Page 41
1.9 Tides and Storm Surges……Page 44
1.10 Rain, Snow, Fog, Spray, Atmospheric Icing, and Lightning……Page 46
1.11 Sea Ice and Icebergs……Page 47
1.12 Seismicity, Seaquakes, and Tsunamis……Page 52
1.13 Floods……Page 53
1.15 Siltation and Bed Loads……Page 54
1.17 Ship Traffic……Page 55
1.19 Accidental Events……Page 56
1.20 Global Warming……Page 57
2.1 General……Page 59
2.3 Liquefaction of Soils……Page 62
2.5 Glacial Till and Boulders on Seafloor……Page 63
2.6 Overconsolidated Silts……Page 64
2.8 Weak Arctic Silts and Clays……Page 65
2.11 Muds and Clays……Page 66
2.11.1 Underwater Slopes in Clays……Page 67
2.11.5 Sampling……Page 68
2.12 Coral and Similar Biogenic Soils; Cemented Soils, Cap Rock……Page 69
2.13 Unconsolidated Sands……Page 70
2.15 Bedrock Outcrops……Page 72
2.16 Cobbles……Page 73
2.19 Seafloor Instability and Slumping; Turbidity Currents……Page 74
2.20 Scour and Erosion……Page 75
2.21 Concluding Remarks……Page 76
3.2 Oil and Petroleum Products……Page 79
3.3 Toxic Chemicals……Page 80
3.6 Turbidity……Page 81
3.8 Air Pollution……Page 82
3.9 Marine Life: Mammals and Birds, Fish, and Other Biota……Page 83
3.11 Noise……Page 84
3.13 Protection of Existing Structures……Page 85
3.15 Safety of the Public and Third-Party Vessels……Page 87
3.16 Archaeological Concerns……Page 88
4.2 Steel Structures for the Marine Environment……Page 89
4.2.2 Fabrication and Welding……Page 90
4.2.3 Erection of Structural Steel……Page 95
4.2.4 Coatings and Corrosion Protection of Steel Structures……Page 98
4.3.2 Concrete Mixes and Properties……Page 101
4.3.2.1 High Performance Concrete—“Flowing Concrete”……Page 105
4.3.2.2 Structural Low-Density Concrete……Page 106
4.3.3 Conveyance and Placement of Concrete……Page 107
4.3.5 Steel Reinforcement……Page 108
4.3.6 Prestressing Tendons and Accessories……Page 112
4.3.7 Embedments……Page 115
4.3.9 Construction Joints……Page 116
4.3.10 Forming and Support……Page 117
4.4 Hybrid Steel–Concrete Structures……Page 118
4.4.2 Composite Construction……Page 119
4.5 Plastics and Synthetic Materials, Composites……Page 121
4.6 Titanium……Page 123
4.7 Rock, Sand, and Asphaltic-Bituminous Materials……Page 124
5.1 General……Page 127
5.2 Basic Motions in a Seaway……Page 128
5.3 Buoyancy, Draft, and Freeboard……Page 130
5.4 Stability……Page 131
5.5 Damage Control……Page 134
5.6 Barges……Page 136
5.7 Crane Barges……Page 140
5.8 Offshore Derrick Barges (Fully Revolving)……Page 144
5.9 Semisubmersible Barges……Page 147
5.10 Jack-Up Construction Barges……Page 150
5.11 Launch Barges……Page 154
5.12 Catamaran Barges……Page 156
5.13 Dredges……Page 157
5.14 Pipe-Laying Barges……Page 162
5.15 Supply Boats……Page 165
5.17 Towboats……Page 166
5.18 Drilling Vessels……Page 167
5.20 Floating Concrete Plant……Page 168
5.21 Tower Cranes……Page 169
5.22 Specialized Equipment……Page 170
6.1 Towing……Page 171
6.2.1 Mooring Lines……Page 179
6.2.2.1 Drag Anchors……Page 180
6.2.2.3 Propellant Anchors……Page 184
6.2.3 Mooring Systems……Page 185
6.3.1 General……Page 193
6.4 Personnel Transfer at Sea……Page 200
6.5.1 Diving……Page 204
6.5.2 Remote-Operated Vehicles (ROVs)……Page 211
6.6.1 General……Page 213
6.6.2 Underwater Concrete Mixes……Page 214
6.6.3 Placement of Tremie Concrete……Page 215
6.6.4 Special Admixtures for Concreting Underwater……Page 219
6.6.5 Grout-lntruded Aggregate……Page 222
6.6.7 Underbase Grout……Page 223
6.6.10 Summary……Page 225
6.7 Offshore Surveying, Navigation, and Seafloor Surveys……Page 226
6.8 Temporary Buoyancy Augmentation……Page 233
7.1 General……Page 235
7.2.1 Determination of Existing Conditions……Page 236
7.3 Seafloor Dredging, Obstruction Removal, and Leveling……Page 237
7.4 Dredging and Removal of Hard Material and Rock……Page 245
7.5 Placement of Underwater Fills……Page 250
7.6 Consolidation and Strengthening of Weak Soils……Page 255
7.8 Scour Protection……Page 258
7.9 Concluding Remarks……Page 262
8.1 General……Page 265
8.2 Fabrication of Tubular Steel Piles……Page 269
8.3 Transportation of Piling……Page 270
8.4 Installing Piles……Page 272
8.5 Methods of Increasing Penetration……Page 295
8.6 Insert Piles……Page 300
8.7 Anchoring into Rock or Hardpan……Page 301
8.8 Testing High Capacity Piles……Page 302
8.10 Enhancing Stiffness and Capacity of Piles……Page 303
8.11 Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Piles……Page 304
8.12 Handling and Positioning of Piles for Offshore Terminals……Page 306
8.13 Drilled and Grouted Piles……Page 307
8.14 Cast-in-Drilled-Hole Piles, Drilled Shafts……Page 312
8.16 Installation in Difficult Soils……Page 322
8.17 Other Methods of Improving the Capacity of Driven Piles……Page 323
8.18 Slurry Walls, Secant Walls, and Tangent Walls……Page 325
8.19 Steel Sheet Piles……Page 326
8.21 Micropiles……Page 327
9.2.2.1 Steel Piles……Page 329
9.2.2.3 Installation……Page 330
9.2.2.4 Batter (Raker) Piles……Page 332
9.2.2.7 Driving Through Obstructions or Very Hard Material……Page 333
9.2.2.8 Staying of Piles……Page 334
9.2.2.9 Head Connections……Page 335
9.2.2.10 Concrete Deck……Page 336
9.2.3.2 Sheet Pile Bulkheads……Page 337
9.2.3.3 Caisson Quay Walls……Page 340
9.3.2 Sheet Pile Cellular Structures……Page 341
9.3.3 “Lift-In” Precast Concrete Shells—“In-the-Wet” Construction……Page 345
9.3.4.1 General……Page 346
9.3.4.2 Prefabrication……Page 347
9.3.4.3 Launching……Page 348
9.3.4.5 Leveling Pads……Page 349
9.3.4.6 Underfill……Page 350
9.4.1 General……Page 353
9.4.2 Open Caissons……Page 354
9.4.3 Pneumatic Caissons……Page 355
9.4.4 Gravity-Base Caissons (Box Caissons)……Page 356
9.4.5 Pile-Supported Box Caissons……Page 367
9.4.6.1 Steel Tubular Piles……Page 370
9.4.6.2 Prestressed Concrete Tubular Piles……Page 377
9.4.7 Connection of Piles to Footing Block (Pile Cap)……Page 380
9.4.9 Cofferdams……Page 381
9.4.9.1 Steel Sheet Pile Cofferdams……Page 382
9.4.9.2 Liquefaction During Cofferdam Construction……Page 385
9.4.9.4 Deep Cofferdams……Page 386
9.4.10 Protective Structures for Bridge Piers……Page 388
9.4.11 Belled Piers……Page 389
9.5.1 Description……Page 391
9.5.2 Prefabrication of Steel–Concrete Composite Tunnel Segments……Page 392
9.5.3 Prefabrication of All-Concrete Tube Segments……Page 393
9.5.4 Preparation of Trench……Page 394
9.5.5 Installing the Segments……Page 395
9.5.8 Pile-Supported Tunnels……Page 396
9.6.1 Description……Page 397
9.6.2 Venice Storm Surge Barrier……Page 398
9.6.3 Oosterschelde Storm Surge Barrier……Page 399
9.7.2 Temperature Control Devices……Page 407
10.2 Ocean Outfalls and Intakes……Page 409
10.3.2 Rubble-Mound Breakwaters……Page 418
10.3.3 Caisson-Type Breakwaters and Caisson-Retained Islands……Page 424
10.3.4 Sheet Pile Cellular Breakwaters……Page 425
10.4 Offshore Terminals……Page 426
11.1 General……Page 443
11.2 Fabrication of Steel Jackets……Page 444
11.3 Load-Out, Tie-Down, and Transport……Page 445
11.4 Removal of Jacket from Transport Barge; Lifting; Launching……Page 454
11.5 Upending of Jacket……Page 462
11.6 Installation on the Seafloor……Page 465
11.7 Pile and Conductor Installation……Page 468
11.8 Deck Installation……Page 471
11.9.1 Example 1—Hondo……Page 474
11.9.2 Example 2—Cognac……Page 482
11.9.3 Example 3—Cerveza……Page 486
12.1 General……Page 489
12.2.1 Stage 1—Construction Basin……Page 493
12.2.2 Stage 2—Construction of Base Raft……Page 497
12.2.3 Stage 3—Float-Out……Page 500
12.2.4 Stage 4—Mooring at Deep-Water Construction Site……Page 501
12.2.5 Stage 5—Construction at Deep-Water Site……Page 502
12.2.6 Stage 6—Shaft Construction……Page 511
12.2.8 Stage 8—Construction of Deck Structure……Page 515
12.2.9 Stage 9—Deck Transport……Page 517
12.2.10 Stage 10—Submergence of Substructure for Deck Mating……Page 519
12.2.11 Stage 11—Deck Mating……Page 520
12.2.13 Stage 13—Towing to Installation Site……Page 523
12.2.14 Stage 14—Installation at Site……Page 524
12.2.15 Stage 15—Installation of Conductors……Page 534
12.3 Alternative Concepts for Construction……Page 535
12.4 Sub-Base Construction……Page 539
12.6 Hybrid Concrete-Steel Platforms……Page 540
13.1 General……Page 543
13.2 Fabrication of Concrete Floating Structures……Page 547
13.3 Concrete Properties of Special Importance to Floating Structures……Page 550
13.4 Construction and Launching……Page 551
13.6 Floating Tunnels……Page 554
13.8 Barges……Page 555
13.9 Floating Airfields……Page 557
13.10 Structures for Permanently Floating Service……Page 558
13.14 Mating Afloat……Page 559
14.1 General……Page 563
14.2 Single-Point Moorings……Page 564
14.3 Articulated Columns……Page 567
14.4 Seafloor Templates……Page 576
14.5 Underwater Oil Storage Vessels……Page 582
14.6 Cable Arrays, Moored Buoys, and Seafloor Deployment……Page 583
14.7 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion……Page 584
14.8.1 General……Page 586
14.10 Wave-Power Structures……Page 590
14.12 Barrier Walls……Page 591
14.13 Breakwaters……Page 592
15.1 General……Page 593
15.2 Conventional S-Lay Barge……Page 596
15.3 Bottom-Pull Method……Page 613
15.4 Reel Barge……Page 620
15.5 Surface Float……Page 622
15.7 Controlled Above-Bottom Pull……Page 623
15.9 J-Lay from Barge……Page 625
15.12 Directional Drilling (Horizontal Drilling)……Page 626
15.14 Protection of Pipelines: Burial and Covering with Rock……Page 627
15.15 Support of Pipelines……Page 634
15.16 Cryogenic Pipelines for LNG and LPG……Page 635
16.1.1 High Density Polyethylene Pipelines……Page 637
16.1.2 Fiber-Reinforced Glass Pipes……Page 639
16.1.3 Composite Flexible Pipelines and Risers……Page 640
16.2 Cable Laying……Page 641
17.2 Module Erection……Page 643
17.3 Hookup……Page 646
17.4 Giant Modules and Transfer of Complete Deck……Page 647
17.5.1 Delivery and Installation……Page 648
17.5.3 French “Smart” System……Page 650
17.5.5 Other Methods……Page 651
18.1 General……Page 653
18.2 Principles Governing Repairs……Page 654
18.3 Repairs to Steel Structures……Page 655
18.5 Repairs to Concrete Structures……Page 658
18.6 Repairs to Foundations……Page 663
18.8 Pipeline Repairs……Page 665
19.2 Strengthening of Offshore Platforms, Terminals,Members and Assemblies……Page 669
19.3 Increasing Capacity of Existing Piles for Axial Loads……Page 670
19.4 Increasing Lateral Capacity of Piles and Structuresin Soil–Structure Interaction……Page 676
19.5 Penetrations Through Concrete Walls……Page 677
19.6 Seismic Retrofit……Page 679
20.1 Removal of Offshore Platforms……Page 681
20.2 Removal of Piled Structures (Terminals, Trestles, Shallow-WaterPlatforms)……Page 682
20.3 Removal of Pile-Supported Steel Platforms……Page 683
20.4 Removal of Concrete Gravity: Base Offshore Platforms……Page 686
20.6 Removal of Harbor Structures……Page 689
20.7 Removal of Coastal Structures……Page 690
21.1 General……Page 691
21.2 Construction Stages for Offshore Structures……Page 692
21.3 Principles of Constructibility……Page 696
21.5.1 Launch Barges……Page 697
21.5.4 Construction in a Basin……Page 698
21.5.5 Launching from a Ways or a Launch Barge……Page 699
21.5.6 Sand Jacking……Page 700
21.5.9 Barge Launching by Ballasting……Page 701
21.6 Assembly and Jointing Afloat……Page 702
21.7 Material Selection and Procedures……Page 703
21.8 Construction Procedures……Page 705
21.9 Access……Page 711
21.10 Tolerances……Page 712
21.11 Survey Control……Page 713
21.12 Quality Control and Assurance……Page 714
21.13 Safety……Page 715
21.14 Control of Construction: Feedback and Modification……Page 716
21.15 Contingency Planning……Page 717
21.16 Manuals……Page 718
21.17 On-Site Instruction Sheets……Page 720
21.18 Risk and Reliability Evaluation……Page 721
22.1 General……Page 727
22.2 Considerations and Phenomena for Deep-Sea Operations……Page 728
22.3 Techniques for Deep-Sea Construction……Page 729
22.4 Properties of Materials for the Deep Sea……Page 731
22.5.1 Description……Page 736
22.5.2 Guyed Towers……Page 737
22.5.3 Compliant (Flexible) Tower……Page 740
22.6 Tension-Leg Platforms (TLP’s)……Page 743
22.8 Ship-Shaped FPSOs……Page 745
22.9 Deep-Water Moorings……Page 746
22.10 Construction Operations on the Deep Seafloor……Page 750
22.11 Deep-Water Pipe Laying……Page 753
22.13 Deep-Water Bridge Piers……Page 756
23.1 General……Page 761
23.2 Sea Ice and Icebergs……Page 762
23.3 Atmospheric Conditions……Page 765
23.4 Arctic Seafloor and Geotechnics……Page 766
23.5 Oceanographic……Page 768
23.6 Ecological Considerations……Page 769
23.7 Logistics and Operations……Page 770
23.8 Earthwork in the Arctic Offshore……Page 772
23.9 Ice Structures……Page 776
23.10.2 Caisson-Retained Islands……Page 778
23.10.3 Shallow-Water Gravity-Base Caissons……Page 779
23.10.5 Bottom-Founded Deep-Water Structures……Page 780
23.10.6 Floating Structures……Page 782
23.10.7 Well Protectors and Seafloor Templates……Page 783
23.11 Deployment of Structures in the Arctic……Page 784
23.12 Installation at Site……Page 786
23.13 Ice Condition Surveys and Ice Management……Page 796
23.14 Durability……Page 797
23.15 Constructibility……Page 799
23.16 Pipeline Installation……Page 800
23.17 Current Arctic Developments……Page 801

This third editon has been intensively augmented and revised to include the latest developments in this rapidly expanding field. The intensified search for oil and gas, the catastrophic flooding of coastal regions and the demands for transportation, bridges, submerged tunnels and waterways have led to the continuing innovation of new technology which isnowavailable for use on more conventional projects as well as those at the frontiers. This text is intended as a guide and reference for practicing engineers and constructors for use in the marine environment. It is also intended as a text for graduate engineering students interested in this highly challenging endeavour.

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