Civil MDC

Civil Engineering Hydraulics: Essential Theory with Worked Examples Textbook by C. Nalluri and R. E. Featherstone

***********TABLE OF CONTENTS******** 1 Properties of Fluids 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Engineering units 1 1.3 Mass density and specific weight 2 1.4 Relative density 2 1.5 Viscosity of fluids 2 1.6 Compressibility and elasticity of fluids 2 1.7 Vapour pressure of liquids 2 1.8 Surface tension and capillarity 3 Worked examples 3 References and recommended reading 5 Problems 5 2 Fluid Statics 7 2.1 Introduction 7 2.2 Pascal’s law 7 2.3 Pressure variation with depth in a static incompressible fluid 8 2.4 Pressure measurement 9 2.5 Hydrostatic thrust on plane surfaces 11 2.6 Pressure diagrams 14 2.7 Hydrostatic thrust on curved surfaces 15 2.8 Hydrostatic buoyant thrust 17 2.9 Stability of floating bodies 17 2.10 Determination of metacentre 18 2.11 Periodic time of rolling (or oscillation) of a floating body 20 2.12 Liquid ballast and the effective metacentric height 20 2.13 Relative equilibrium 22 Worked examples 24 Reference and recommended reading 41 Problems 41 3 Fluid Flow Concepts and Measurements 47 3.1 Kinematics of fluids 47 3.2 Steady and unsteady flows 48 3.3 Uniform and non-uniform flows 48 3.4 Rotational and irrotational flows 49 3.5 One-, two- and three-dimensional flows 49 3.6 Streamtube and continuity equation 49 3.7 Accelerations of fluid particles 50 3.8 Two kinds of fluid flow 51 3.9 Dynamics of fluid flow 52 3.10 Energy equation for an ideal fluid flow 52 3.11 Modified energy equation for real fluid flows 54 3.12 Separation and cavitation in fluid flow 55 3.13 Impulse–momentum equation 56 3.14 Energy losses in sudden transitions 57 3.15 Flow measurement through pipes 58 3.16 Flow measurement through orifices and mouthpieces 60 3.17 Flow measurement in channels 64 Worked examples 69 References and recommended reading 85 Problems 85 4 Flow of Incompressible Fluids in Pipelines 89 4.1 Resistance in circular pipelines flowing full 89 4.2 Resistance to flow in non-circular sections 94 4.3 Local losses 94 Worked examples 95 References and recommended reading 115 Problems 115 5 Pipe Network Analysis 119 5.1 Introduction 119 5.2 The head balance method (‘loop’ method) 120 5.3 The quantity balance method (‘nodal’ method) 121 5.4 The gradient method 123 Worked examples 125 References and recommended reading 142 Problems 143 6 Pump–Pipeline System Analysis and Design 149 6.1 Introduction 149 6.2 Hydraulic gradient in pump–pipeline systems 150 6.3 Multiple pump systems 151 6.4 Variable-speed pump operation 153 6.5 Suction lift limitations 153 Worked examples 154 References and recommended reading 168 Problems 168 7 Boundary Layers on Flat Plates and in Ducts 171 7.1 Introduction 171 7.2 The laminar boundary layer 171 7.3 The turbulent boundary layer 172 7.4 Combined drag due to both laminar and turbulent boundary layers 173 7.5 The displacement thickness 173 7.6 Boundary layers in turbulent pipe flow 174 7.7 The laminar sub-layer 176 Worked examples 178 References and recommended reading 185 Problems 185 8 Steady Flow in Open Channels 187 8.1 Introduction 187 8.2 Uniform flow resistance 188 8.3 Channels of composite roughness 189 8.4 Channels of compound section 190 8.5 Channel design 191 8.6 Uniform flow in part-full circular pipes 194 8.7 Steady, rapidly varied channel flow energy principles 195 8.8 The momentum equation and the hydraulic jump 196 8.9 Steady, gradually varied open channel flow 198 8.10 Computations of gradually varied flow 199 8.11 The direct step method 199 8.12 The standard step method 200 8.13 Canal delivery problems 201 8.14 Culvert flow 202 8.15 Spatially varied flow in open channels 203 Worked examples 205 References and recommended reading 241 Problems 241 9 Dimensional Analysis, Similitude and Hydraulic Models 247 9.1 Introduction 247 9.2 Dimensional analysis 248 9.3 Physical significance of non-dimensional groups 248 9.4 The Buckingham ???? theorem 249 9.5 Similitude and model studies 249 Worked examples 250 References and recommended reading 263 Problems 263 10 Ideal Fluid Flow and Curvilinear Flow 265 10.1 Ideal fluid flow 265 10.2 Streamlines, the stream function 265 10.3 Relationship between discharge and stream function 266 10.4 Circulation and the velocity potential function 267 10.5 Stream functions for basic flow patterns 267 10.6 Combinations of basic flow patterns 269 10.7 Pressure at points in the flow field 269 10.8 The use of flow nets and numerical methods 270 10.9 Curvilinear flow of real fluids 273 10.10 Free and forced vortices 274 Worked examples 274 References and recommended reading 285 Problems 285 11 Gradually Varied Unsteady Flow from Reservoirs 289 11.1 Discharge between reservoirs under varying head 289 11.2 Unsteady flow over a spillway 291 11.3 Flow establishment 292 Worked examples 293 References and recommended reading 302 Problems 302 12 Mass Oscillations and Pressure Transients in Pipelines 305 12.1 Mass oscillation in pipe systems – surge chamber operation 305 12.2 Solution neglecting tunnel friction and throttle losses for sudden discharge stoppage 306 12.3 Solution including tunnel and surge chamber losses for sudden discharge stoppage 307 12.4 Finite difference methods in the solution of the surge chamber equations 308 12.5 Pressure transients in pipelines (waterhammer) 309 12.6 The basic differential equations of waterhammer 311 12.7 Solutions of the waterhammer equations 312 12.8 The Allievi equations 312 12.9 Alternative formulation 315 Worked examples 316 References and recommended reading 322 Problems 322 13 Unsteady Flow in Channels 323 13.1 Introduction 323 13.2 Gradually varied unsteady flow 323 13.3 Surges in open channels 324 13.4 The upstream positive surge 325 13.5 The downstream positive surge 326 13.6 Negative surge waves 327 13.7 The dam break 329 Worked examples 330

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