Civil MDC

Handbook of Environmental Engineering by Myer Kutz 3rd Editioon, (2018)

TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Contributors xiii Preface xv 1 Environmental Systems Analysis 1 Adisa Azapagic 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Environmental Systems Analysis Methods 1 1.3 Summary 11 References 11 2 Measurements in Environmental Engineering 13 Daniel A. Vallero Summary 13 2.1 Introduction 13 2.2 Environmental Sampling Approaches 18 2.3 Laboratory Analysis 22 2.4 Sources of Uncertainty 25 2.5 Measurements and Models 27 2.6 Contaminants of Concern 27 2.7 Environmental Indicators 31 2.8 Emerging Trends in Measurement 33 2.9 Measurement Ethics 40 Note 41 References 41 3 Environmental Law for Engineers 45 Jana B. Milford 3.1 Introduction and General Principles 45 3.2 Common Law 48 3.3 The National Environmental Policy Act 50 3.4 Clean Air Act 52 3.5 Clean Water Act 55 3.6 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 58 3.7 CERCLA 61 3.8 Enforcement and Liability 62 Notes 65 4 Climate Modeling 67 Huei?Ping Huang 4.1 Introduction 67 4.2 Historical Development 67 4.3 Numerical Architecture of the Dynamical Core 68 4.4 Physical and Subgrid?Scale Parameterization 71 4.5 Coupling among the Major Components of the Climate System 73 4.6 The Practice of Climate Prediction and Projection 73 4.7 Statistical Model 77 4.8 Outlook 77 References 78 5 Climate Change Impact Analysis for the Environmental Engineer 83 Panshu Zhao, John R. Giardino, and Kevin R. Gamache 5.1 Introduction 83 5.2 Earth System’s Critical Zone 84 5.3 Perception,Risk, and Hazard 87 5.4 Climatology Methods 94 5.5 Geomorphometry:The Best Approach for Impact Analysis 99 References 114 6 Adaptation Design to Sea Level Rise 119 Mujde Erten?Unal and Mason Andrews 6.1 Introduction: Sea Level Rise 119 6.2 Existing Structures and Adaptation Design to Sea Level Rise 120 6.3 Case Studies Reflecting Adaptation Design Solutions 124 Notes 135 References 135 7 Soil Physical Properties and Processes 137 Morteza Sadeghi, Ebrahim Babaeian, Emmanuel Arthur, Scott B. Jones, and Markus Tuller 7.1 Introduction 137 7.2 Basic Properties of Soils 137 7.3 Water Flow in Soils 158 7.4 Solute Transport 173 7.5 Soil Temperature, Thermal Properties, and Heat Flow 182 7.6 Summary 194 Acknowledgments 194 Abbreviations 194 Physical Constants and Variables 195 References 198 8 In Situ Soil and Sediment Remediation: Electrokinetic and Electrochemical Methods 209 Sibel Pamukcu 8.1 Introduction and Background 209 8.2 Overview and Theory of Direct Electric Current in Soil and Sediment Remediation 211 8.3 Electrokinetically and Electrochemically Aided Soil and Sediment Remediation 222 8.4 Summary and Conclusions 239 References 240 9 Remote Sensing of Environmental Variables and Fluxes 249 Morteza Sadeghi, Ebrahim Babaeian, Ardeshir M. Ebtehaj, Scott B. Jones, and Markus Tuller 9.1 Introduction 249 9.2 RadiativeTransfer Theory 249 9.3 RS Technology 255 9.4 RS of Static Soil Properties 263 9.5 RS of State Variables 269 9.6 RS of Environmental Fluxes 282 9.7 Summary 287 Acknowledgments 288 Abbreviations 288 Physical Constants and Variables 289 References 290 10 Environmental Fluid Mechanics 303 Nigel B. Kaye, Abdul A. Khan, and Firat Y. Testik 10.1 Open? Channel Flow 303 10.2 Surface Waves 308 10.3 Groundwater Flow 310 10.4 Advection and Diffusion 313 10.5 Turbulent Jets 318 10.6 Turbulent Buoyant Plumes 320 10.7 Gravity Currents 326 References 329 11 Water Quality 333 Steven C. Chapra 11.1 Introduction 333 11.2 Historical Background 334 11.3 Overview of Modern Water Quality 336 11.4 Natural or “Conventional” Water Quality Problems 339 11.5 Toxic Substances 345 11.6 Emerging Water Pollutants 348 11.7 Back to the Future 348 Note 349 References 349 12 Wastewater Engineering 351 Say Kee Ong 12.1 Introduction 351 12.2 Wastewater Characteristics and Treatment Requirements 351 12.3 Treatment Technologies 355 12.4 Summary 371 References 371 13 Wastewater Recycling 375 Judith L. Sims and Kirsten M. Sims 13.1 Introduction 375 13.2 Uses of Reclaimed Wastewater 376 13.3 Reliability Requirements for Wastewater Reclamation and Recycling Systems 414 13.4 Planning and Funding for Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse 416 13.5 Legal and Regulatory Issues 416 13.6 Public Involvement and Participation 418 13.7 Additional Considerations for Wastewater Recycling and Reclamation: Integrated Resource Recovery 418 13.8 Additional Sources of Information 423 References 423 14 Design of Porous Pavements for Improved Water Quality and Reduced Runoff 425 Will Martin, Milani Sumanasooriya, Nigel B. Kaye, and Brad Putman 14.1 Introduction 425 14.2 Benefits 428 14.3 Hydraulic Characterization 430 14.4 Hydraulic and Hydrologic Behavior 435 14.5 Design, Construction, and Maintenance 442 References 448 15 Air Pollution Control Engineering 453 Kumar Ganesan and Louis Theodore 15.1 Overview of Air Quality 453 15.2 Emissions of Particulates 453 15.3 Control of Particulates 459 15.4 Control of Gaseous Compounds 476 Acknowledgment 491 References 491 Further Reading 491 16 Atmospheric Aerosols and Their Measurement 493 Christian M. Carrico 16.1 Overview of Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere 493 16.2 History and Regulation 493 16.3 Particle Concentration Measurements 494 16.4 Measuring Particle Sizing Characteristics 497 16.5 Ambient Aerosol Particle Size Distribution Measurements 498 16.6 Aerosol Measurements: Sampling Concerns 501 16.7 Aerosol Formation and Aging Processes 501 16.8 Aerosol Optical Properties: Impacts on Visibility and Climate 502 16.9 Measurements of Aerosol Optical Properties 505 16.10 Aerosol Chemical Composition 506 16.11 Aerosol Hygroscopicity 509 16.12 Aerosols,Meteorology, and Climate 511 16.13 Aerosol Emission Control Technology 513 16.14 Summary and Conclusion 515 References 515 17 Indoor Air Pollution 519 Shelly L. Miller 17.1 Introduction 519 17.2 Completely Mixed Flow Reactor Model 522 17.3 Deposition Velocity 524 17.4 Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation 526 17.5 Filtration of Particles and Gases 528 17.6 Ventilation and Infiltration 532 17.7 Ventilation Measurements 536 17.8 Thermal Comfort and Psychrometrics 539 17.9 Energy Efficiency Retrofits 541 17.10 Health Effects of Indoor Air Pollution 542 17.11 Radon Overview 546 17.12 Sources of Indoor Radon 548 17.13 Controlling Indoor Radon 550 17.14 Particles in Indoor Air 551 17.15 Bioaerosols 553 17.16 Volatile Organic Compounds 555 17.17 VOC Surface Interactions 556 17.18 Emissions Characterization 557 17.19 Odors 559 Acknowledgments 560 Note 560 References 560 18 Environmental Noise Pollution 565 Sharad Gokhale 18.1 Introduction 565 18.2 Environmental Noise 565 18.3 Effects on Human Health and Environment 566 18.4 Sound Propagation in Environment 567 18.5 Characteristics of Sound 569 18.6 Relationship between Characteristics 570 18.7 Environmental Noise Levels 573 18.8 Measurement and Analysis of Ambient Noise 574 18.9 Environmental Noise Management 579 Note 580 References 581 19 Hazardous Waste Management 583 Clayton J. Clark II and Stephanie Luster?Teasley 19.1 Fundamentals 583 19.2 Legal Framework 585 19.3 Fate and Transport 591 19.4 Toxicology 593 19.5 Environmental Audits 594 19.6 General Overall Site Remediation Procedure 596 References 598 20 Waste Minimization and Reuse Technologies 599 Bora Cetin and Lin Li 20.1 Introduction 599 20.2 Type of Recycled Waste Materials 599 20.3 Recycling Applications of Fly Ash and Recycled Concrete Aggregates 601 20.4 Benefit of Recycling Materials Usage 621 20.5 Conclusions 621 References 623 21 Solid Waste Separation and Processing: Principles and Equipment 627 Georgios N. Anastassakis 21.1 Introduction 627 21.2 Size (or Volume) Reduction of Solid Waste 629 21.3 Size Separation 636 21.4 Manual?/Sensor?Based Sorting 638 21.5 Density (or Gravity) Separation 649 21.6 Magnetic/Electrostatic Separation 653 21.7 Ballistic Separation 660 21.8 Froth Flotation 661 21.9 Products Agglomeration (Cubing and Pelletizing) 661 21.10 Compaction (Baling) 663 21.11 Benefits and Prospects of Recycling 666 References 669 22 Waste Reduction in Metals Manufacturing 673 Carl C. Nesbitt 22.1 Wastes at the Mine Sites 674 22.2 Chemical Metallurgy Wastes 678 22.3 Conclusions 686 Reference 686 Further Reading 687 23 Waste Reduction and Pollution Prevention for the Chemicals Industry: Methodologies, Economics,and Multiscale Modeling Approaches 689 Cheng Seong Khor, Chandra Mouli R. Madhuranthakam, and Ali Elkamel 23.1 Introduction 689 23.2 Development of Pollution Prevention Programs 691 23.3 Economics of Pollution Prevention 698 23.4 Survey of Tools, Technologies, and Best Practices for Pollution Prevention 699 23.5 Concluding Remarks 707 References 707 24 Industrial Waste Auditing 709 C. Visvanathan 24.1 Overview 709 24.2 Waste Minimization Programs 710 24.3 Waste Minimization Cycle 711 24.4 Waste Auditing 712 24.5 Phase I: Preparatory Works for Waste Audit 712 24.6 Phase II: Preassessment of Target Processes 717 24.7 Phase III: Assessment 719 24.8 Phase IV: Synthesis and Preliminary Analysis 722 24.9 Conclusion 724 Suggested Reading 729 Index 731

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